Research by Topic

My research can be organized along six major themes:  Labor Policy;  Social Security Reforms; The California Labor Market; Education; Labor Markets (Country Studies); and Gender Issues.  A list of recent papers or publications follows. 

Labor Policy


“Labor Market Reforms in Latin America: Consequences and Costs,” Chapter 3 in Latin American Development Priorities Costs and Benefits edited by Bjorn Lomborg. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press 2009: 103-145.


“Overcoming Labor Market Challenges in the U.S.A., Chapter 4 in A New Paradigm for Social Welfare in the New Millenium edited by Lee-Jay Cho, Yoon Hyung Kim, and Sang-Hyop Lee. Korea Development Institute Press, 2005, pp 103-29.

“Payroll Taxes: True Taxes or Deferred Compensation,” presented at the 7th annual meeting of the Latin American Economic Association (LACEA) in Madrid-Spain, October 11-13 2002

“Payroll Taxation in Latin America,” presented at the Conference Labor Market Reforms in Latin America: Much Talked About, Seldom Implemented, Stanford University – Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform.  November 8-10, 2001.

 “Economic Reforms and Labor Markets: Policy Issues and Lessons from Chile,” (co-authored). Economic Policy  30, April 2000 (183-229).  This paper is also available as a NBER Working Paper #7646 (April 2000).  National Bureau of Economic Research-Cambridge MA.  Tambien en espanol en Estudios Publicos #78, Fall, 2000.

“The economics of employment protection, and unemployment insurance schemes: Reflections on policy options for Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia.” (with Cristopher Manning).   Chapter 8 in East Asian Labor Markets and the economic crisis: Impact Responses and Lessons, edited by G. Betcherman and R. Islam, Washington DC: World Bank - ILO

“Is Protectionism Still Alive?” (1998) in Trade: Towards Open Regionalism. Conference Proceedings edited by S. Burki, G. Perry and S. Calvo.  Annual World Bank Conference on Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington DC: The World Bank:  pp. 256-59

“Job Security and Bargaining Power in Asia and Latin America,” in Rethinking Development in East Asia and Latin America edited by James McGuire. Conference proceedings.  Pacific Council on International Policy and Center for International Studies - University of Southern California.  (December 1997). Pp 123-25.

“Labor market Regulations in Latin America: An Overview” (1997): Chapter 5 in Labor Markets in Latin America: Combining Social Protection with Market Flexibility, edited by S. Edwards and N. Lustig. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Labor and Economic Reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean  (main author) A Regional Perspectives Paper of the World Development Report 95.  Washington: The World Bank, 1995.

"Labor Market Distortions and Structural Adjustment in Developing Countries" (with Sebastian Edwards). Chapter 2 in Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment, edited by D. Mazumdar and S. Horton. World Bank, Economic Development Institute, 1994.

"Labor Market Distortions and Structural Adjustment in Developing Countries," (co-author S. Edwards) National Bureau of Economic Research Papers Series #3346, July 1990.

"Labor Supply Price, Market Wage, and the Social Opportunity Cost of Labor." Economic Development and Cultural Change 38, #1 (October, 1989): pp. 31-43.

Social Security Reforms


“Impact of Social Security Reform on Labor Force Participation Rates of Pensioners and Non-pensioners: Evidence from Chile (with  Estelle James) Journal of Human Capital 4 (2): 130-72, Summer 2010.


Chile’s New Pension Reforms (with Estelle James and Augusto Iglesias) National Center for policy Analysis Policy Report No. 326. March 2010


Disability Insurance with Pre-funding and Private Participation: The Chilean Model. (with Estelle James and  Augusto Iglesias)  World Bank Social Protection Discussion Paper 0801. January 2008


The Gender Impact of Social Security Reform (Co-authors Estelle James and Rebeca Wong) University of Chicago Press. August  2008  ISBN-13: 978-0-226-39200-4 (reviewed in Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Volume 10 , Issue 1 December 2010 & Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 47, No. 2: pp 513-16.  May 2009)


"The Impact of Private Participation and Countervailing Information on Disability Costs: Evidence from Chile." (with  Estelle James and Augusto Iglesias) Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 8 (3): 291–320, July, 2009.

The Gender Impact of Social Security Reform in Latin America, (with Estelle James and Rebeca Wong) Well-Being and Social Policy (Bienestar y Política Social) 1,#1, 2nd semester 2005: 1-34.

Pension Reforms and Employment, International Economics Journal 19, #2, June 2005: 305-19.

"The Impact of Social Security Reform on Women in Three Countries," (with Estelle James and Rebeca Wong) National Center for Policy Analysis Policy Report # 264 November 2003.

“The Gender Impact of Pension Reform,” (with Estelle James and Rebeca Wong) Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 2 #2, July 2003: 181-219.

"The Gender Impact of Pension Reforms: Across-Country Analysis," (with Estelle James and Rebeca Wong) (long version) World Bank Policy Research Paper Series

“Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile,” World Bank Economic Review 16, #3,(2002) : 321-43.

 “Social Security Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile." ” (with Sebastian Edwards) Economic Development and Cultural Change 50 #3, April 2002: pp 465-89.

Social Security Reform and Women's Pensions  (February 2001)

“Pension Projections for Chilean Men and Women: Estimates from Social Security Contributions” (translated to Spanish as "El Futuro de las Pensiones en Chile") Estudios Públicos #79 Winter, 2000 

California Labor Market

"Contingent Workers in California" (with Lisa Grobar) (2002) California Policy Options UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research.  The UCLA Anderson Forecast: pp 155-77.

"Contingent Workers and Alternative Employment Arrangements: Evidence from the State of California," (with Lisa Grobar) (March 2001) Research funded by a Faculty Fellows Program Grant from California State University – Sacramento

Labor Market Dynamics During a Period of Structural Change: California in the Early 1990s,” (with Lisa Grobar)   Growth and Change  XXI, #1  Winter 2000: pp 59-81.


 International Migration, Remittances, and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador, (with Manuelita Ureta) Journal of Development Economics 72 #2, December 2003: 429-62. 

“Labor Market Reform” (1998) in Preparing Global Professionals for the New Century.  Issues, Curricula and Strategies for International Affairs Education edited by Michelle Cisco Titi. Washington DC: Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs. Pp. 30-33.

“Chile - Case 10 in Part II: High Growth Economies” in Vocational Education and Training Reform: Matching Skills to Markets and Budgets, edited by I. Gill, F. Fluitman and A. Dar. Oxford University Press for The World Bank,  2000.

“La formacion profesional en America Latina: Nuevos remedios para un viejo paciente.”  [Workers training in Latin America: New remedies for an old patient.] (collaboration) in Planeación y Desarrollo.  vol. 25,  Special edition “Lessons from Indonesia, Training for a new labor market,”  1994.

"Rates of Return to Education in Brazil:  Do Labor Market  Conditions Matter?" (co-author). Economics of Education Review vol. 12, #3, 1993.

"Teacher Compensation in Developing Countries" Chapter 4 (pgs. 53-66) in Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs.  Edited by J.P. Farrel and J.B. Oliveira.  EDI Seminar Series. Economic Development Institute of The World Bank, 1993.

"Teachers' Salaries: International Comparisons". Entry in The International Encyclopedia of Education: Supplementary Volume Two (1990) Pergamon Press: Oxford.

"Understanding Differences in Wages relative to Income per capita: the case of teachers' salaries." Economics of Education Review 8 #2 (1989): pp. 197-207.

Labor Markets:  Country or Regional Studies

"Labor Market Analysis," (with Vicente Fretes-Cibils)  in Mexico:  Southern States Development Strategy  The World Bank (forthcoming).

“Rural Labor Markets”  Chapter 1 in Poland – The functioning of the labor, land and financial markets: opportunities and constraints for farming sector restructuring, The World Bank Sector Report #22598, Dec. 2001: pp. 1-32.

Economic Reforms and Labor Markets: Policy Issues and Lessons from Chile,” (co-authored). Economic Policy  30, April 2000 (183-229).  This paper is also available as a NBER Working Paper #7646 (April 2000).  National Bureau of Economic Research-Cambridge MA.

“Labor Market Reforms and the Modernization of Labor Relations in Chile” Southwestern Journal of Law and Trade in the Americas vol VI, #2 Fall 1999: pp. 285-306.

“Wage Employment and  Rural Poverty Alleviation,” (2000) Chapter 5 in Poverty in Latin America edited by Ramón López and Alberto Valdes. London: Mc Millan and New York: St. Martin Press

Lineamientos para una política de erradicación de la pobreza rural en base a la experiencia local de El Salvador,” presented at LACEA 99.

“Trade liberalization and unemployment:  Policy issues and evidence from Chile,” (1997) in International Trade and Labor Markets edited by Jitendradal Borkakotic and Chris Milner for the International Economics Study Group. London: MacMillan Press.

“Trade Liberalization and Unemployment: Policy Issues and Evidence from Chile,” (in Spanish) Cuadernos de Economia  Year 33, Volume 33, #99 August 1996 (227-50).

“Labor Regulations and Industrial Relations in Indonesia” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper # 1640.  The World Bank, Poverty and Social Policy Department, August 1996.

Workers in an Integrating World.  World Development Report 1995  (collaboration)  Oxford University Press for The World Bank,  1995

"The Economy," Chapter 3, in Chile, The Library of Congress Series, edited by Rex Hudson.  Washington: Library of Congress. 1994

"Labor Market Legislation in Latin America and the Caribbean" World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Technical Department.  Regional Studies Program. Report # 31, December 1993.

"The Brazilian Labor Market in the 1980s" World Bank Report No. 9693-BR.  Country Operations Division , Country Department I, Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office.  May 1993.

"Markets and Democracy: Exploring Chile's Economic Future"  (co-author).  The World Economy Vol. 15, #2, 1992.

Monetarism and Liberalization: The Chilean Experiment. With a New Afterword. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1991).

Wage Trends in Latin America A View from LATHR #18, Washington D.C. The World Bank, September 1991.

"Labor Market Adjustment with Indexation: The Case of Chile between 1974 and 1980." In Latin American Debt and Adjustment: External Shocks and Macroeconomic Policies, edited by P. Brock, M. Connolly, and C. Gonzales-Vega. New-York. Preager Publishers (1989): pp. 133-153.

"The Chilean Stabilization Program of 1973-1983" (Co-author Sebastian Edwards (UCLA)).  Monetary Affairs (May 1988).

"Las diferencias Salariales no Compensadas: Implicaciones y Medicion en el Caso Chileno 1974-1980" ["Uncompensated Wage Differentials, Implications and Measurement for the Chilean Case, 1974-1980"] El Trimestre Economico (April, 1988)

"El Mercado Laboral en Chile Durante la decada 1974?1983: Problemas de Ajuste" ["The Labor Market in Chile During the 1974?1983 Decade: Problems of Adjustment] Cuadernos de Economia (August 1987)

"Economic Reforms, External Shocks, and The Labor Market: Chile 1973?1983", World Bank Discussion Paper, Report No. DRD231. Washington D.C. October, 1986.

"The Chilean Labor Market 1970?1983: An Overview"  World Bank Discussion Paper, Report No. DRD152. Washington D.C., January, 1986.


 “The Gender Impact of Pension Reform:  A Cross-Country Analysis,” (with Estelle James and Rebeca Wong)  The World Bank – Policy Research Paper, 2003.

Women in the LAC Labor Market: The Remarkable 1990s,” (with Suzanne Durvyea (I.D.B) and Manuelita Ureta (Texas A & M ) presented at the VI Annual Meetings of LACEA. Montevideo – Uruguay, October 18-20, 2001  (Spanish Translation)

A close look at the living standards of Chilean elderly men and women (December, 1999).

"Gender Aspects of Labor Allocation during Structural Adjustment"  (with Paul Collier, Judith Roberts and Kalpana Bardhan).  Chapter 6 in Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment, edited by D. Mazumdar and S. Horton. World Bank, Economic Development Institute, 1994.

"Macroeconomic Influences on Female Labor Force Participation:  The Latin American Evidence". (co-author) Estudios de Economia June 1993.