This "Alternatives" section deals with the "three Rs" of alternatives to animal use: "replacement," "reduction," and "refinement." The IACUC requires that all researchers using animals constantly search for alternatives to the use of "high order" vertebrates in their research. The risks to the animal must be "reduced" and the scientific procedures "refined" whenever possible.
Please read the "General Information" section (and anything else) on the "Alternatives To Animal Testing" website at Johns Hopkins (see resources). Also, please look at the "NIH Model Organisms for Biomedical Research" website. When you have finished these two areas, you should proceed with the "Alternatives" area material in this Orientation.