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Anesthetic and Analgesic Guidelines for Research/Classroom Use

Note: This information is provided to assist faculty and staff in preparing proposals and is to be used as a reference during the conduction of IACUC approved research/classroom protocols. This information is not to be used for indiscriminate modifications of protocols. Modifications of anesthetic and/or analgesic procedures must receive prior IACUC approval.

Abbreviations

  • hr = hour
  • IM = intramuscularly
  • IP = intraperitoneally
  • IV = intravenously
  • kg = kilogram
  • mcg = microgram
  • mg = milligram
  • PO = per os (orally)
  • q = every
  • SQ = subcutaneously

Anesthetic and analgesic guidelines

MOUSE

Analgesics

  • Buprenorphine: 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg SQ q 12 hr
  • Butorphanol: 5.4 mg/kg SQ
  • Meperidine: 20.0 mg/kg SQ, IM q 1 hr
  • Morphine: 10.0 mg/kg IM, SQ
  • Pentazocine: 10.0 mg/kg SQ, IM, IV q 5 hr
  • Phenylbutazone: 200.0 mg/kg PO

Anesthetics (Injectable)

  • Ketamine and Xylazine: 40.0 - 50.0 mg/kg and 40.0 - 50.0 mg/kg IP
  • Pentobarbitol: 30.0 - 90.0 mg/kg IP; 25.0 - 50.0 mg/kg IV
    • Comment: High mortality at high doses
  • Pentobarbitol/Ethanol Cocktail: 70.0% Ethanol: 1.0 cc; Sterile (Distilled) Water: 6.0 cc; 65.0 mg/ml Pentobarbital: 0.8 cc -- Administer: 0.01 cc/gm IP
  • Thiopental: 25.0 - 50.0 mg/kg IV

Anesthetics (Inhalation)

  • Methoxyflurane
    • Comment: Requires bell jar, nose cone, and effective scavenging of waste gasses (fume hood). Provision must be made to prevent direct contact of animal with liquid methoxyflurane.

Immobilizing Agents

  • Ketamine
    • 100.0 - 200.0 mg/kg IM (non-survival procedures only)
    • 25.0 - 50.0 mg/kg IP
  • Ketamine and Acepromazine: 100.0 mg/kg (Ketamine) and 2.5 mg/kg (Acepromazine) IM
    • Comment: IM Ketamine should only be used for non-survival procedures

Sedatives/Tranquilizers

  • Acepromazine:
    • 15.0 mg/kg SQ
    • 5.0 mg/kg IP
  • Chlorpromazine:
    • 6.0 - 12.0 mg/kg IP
    • 25.0 mg/kg SQ
    • 50.0 mg/kg IM
  • Diazepam:
    • 5.0 - 6.0 mg/kg IP
  • Innovar-Vet:
    • 1:9 dilution with saline
    • 0.00125 cc/gm SQ
  • Xylazine: 10.0 - 15.0 mg/kg IM

Anesthetic and analgesic guidelines RAT

Analgesics

  • Buprenorphine: 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg SQ q 12 hr
  • Butorphanol: 23.0 mg/kg SQ
  • Morphine: 5.0 - 10.0 mg/kg SQ q 4 hr
  • Meperidine: 20.0 mg/kg SQ, IM q 1 hr
  • Pentazocine: 5.0 - 10.0 mg/kg SQ, IM, IV q 1-4hr
  • Phenylbutazone: 200.0 mg/kg PO

Anesthetics (Injectable)

  • Ketamine and Xylazine: 45.0 - 100.0 mg/kg and 5.0 - 10.0 mg/kg IM, IP
    • Comment: Should be accompanied by Atropine 0.05 mg/kg IM, IP to decrease respiratory secretions. IM Ketamine should only be used for non-survival procedures.
  • Pentobarbital: 25.0 - 40.0 mg/kg IP, IV
    • Comment: High mortality at higher doses
  • Thiopental:
    • 20.0 - 40.0 mg/kg IP
    • 30.0 mg/kg IV
    • Comment: Short (15 min) duration

Anesthetics (Inhalation)

  • Halothane
    • Comment: Requires precision vaporizer
  • Methoxyflurane
    • Comment: Requires bell jar, nose cone, and effective scavenging of waste gasses (fume hood). Provision must be made to prevent direct contact of animal with liquid methoxyflurane.

Immobilizing Agents

  • Ketamine 60.0 - 100.0 mg/kg IM, IP
    • Comment: Should be accompanied by Atropine 0.05 mg/kg IM, IP to decrease respiratory secretions.
    • Comment: IM Ketamine should only be used for non-survival procedures

Sedatives/Tranquilizers

  • Acepromazine: 5.0 mg/kg IM, SQ
  • Chlorpromazine: 5.0 - 20.0 mg/kg IP
  • Diazepam: 2.5 - 10.0 mg/kg IP
  • Innovar-Vet: 0.1 cc/kg SQ
  • Ketamine: 20.0 mg/kg IP
  • Xylazine: 15.0 mg/kg IM

Miscellaneous

  • Heparin: 200u/kg SQ

Anesthetic and analgesic guidelines RABBIT

Analgesics

  • Buprenorphine: 0.02 - 0.05 mg/kg SQ q 12 hr
  • Meperidine: 5.0 - 10.0 mg/kg IM, SQ
  • Morphine:
    • 5.0 - 10.0 mg/kg IM, SQ q 4 hr
    • 2.0 - 5.0 mg/kg IV
  • Pentazocine: 10.0 - 20.0 mg/kg SQ q 4-6 hr
  • Phenylbutazone: 100.0 mg/kg IV

Anesthetics (Injectable)

  • Ketamine and Xylazine:
    • 10.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg IV
    • 35.0 - 50.0 mg/kg and 5.0 - 8.0 mg/kg IM
  • Comment: IV anesthetics should be diluted 5:1 with saline and administered very slowly to effect.
  • Comment: Should be accompanied by Atropine 0.2 mg/kg IM to decrease respiratory secretions.
  • Pentobarbital:
    • 15.0 - 40.0 mg/kg IV
    • 40.0 mg/kg IP
    • Comment: High mortality at higher doses
  • Thiamylal: 15.0 - 25.0 mg/kg IV
    • Comment: Ultrashort (15 min) anesthetic
  • Thiopental: 20.0 - 50.0 mg/kg IV
    • Comment: Ultrashort (15 min) anesthetic

Anesthetics (Inhalation)

  • Halothane
    • Comment: Requires precision vaporizer
  • Methoxyflurane
    • Comment: Can maintain with nose cone only after anesthesia is induced with another agent

Immobilizing Agents

  • Ketamine: 30.0 - 75.0 mg/kg IM
  • Ketamine and Acepromazine: 30.0 - 70.0 mg/kg and 2.0 - 5.0 mg/kg IM
    • Comment: Should be accompanied by Atropine 0.2 mg/kg IM to decrease repiratory secretions.

Sedatives/Tranquilizers

  • Acepromazine: 1.0 mg/kg IM
  • Diazepam: 4.0 - 5.0 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine: 3.0 - 6.0 mg/kg IM, SQ

Vasodilator

  • Innovar-Vet: 0.125 ml/kg SQ
    • (See recommendations for Use of Innovar-Vet in this manual)

Miscellaneous

  • Heparin: 200u/kg IV, SQ

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